exactly two (2) things on earth that nathan explosion can do with any degree of competence
- death metal
what does a cannibal do after dumping his girlfriend?
he wipes his ass
What you see above are photos that were created from negatives stored at the City Records Center in downtown Los Angeles. These are records of crimes that are decades old (the archives date back to 1925). Merrick Morton, an LA-based photographer and LAPD reserve officer discovered the archive in 2001.
Proof that “The Good Ol’ Days” were just a myth created by selective memory.
Fredegonde burns the witches, c.1493
Fredegunde was a Frankish queen associated with two cases of witchcraft. Of low origin, Fredegunde became one of the mistresses of the Merovingian king Chilperic I of Neustria. She later married him after inducing him to strangle his wife Galswintha (ca. 567), a member of the royal Gothic dynasty. This became a reason for the renewed war between the Frankish kingdoms of Neustria and Austrasia. Following the murder in 584 of Chilperic (over whom she had exerted remarkable power) and her order that several sons whom her husband had with other wives be killed, Fredegunde acted as regent for her son Clotaire II. Frankish historiography portrays her as an extremely cruel and power-mad ruler, torturing and murdering many men and women, even those of high standing, at her discretion; no source allows us to contradict that verdict.
When her sons had died during a disease epidemic, Fredegunde became convinced that one of her female servants had bewitched them and intended to do the same thing to her. This woman allegedly wanted to kill the queen and her children because her daughter had become the mistress of Chilperic’s son Clovis and might become the future king’s spouse, if both Fredegunde and her sons could be eliminated. The queen, therefore, had both the woman and her daughter captured and tortured. The servant confessed her use of magic arts or poison (maleficiis) and blamed it on Clovis, whom Fredegunde soon had murdered. The suspected sorceress “was condemned to be burned alive. As she was dragged off to the stake, the poor creature started to admit that she had lied, but her confession availed her nothing” (Gregory of Tours 1974, V: 39).
Somewhat later, Fredegunde’s young son Theuderic also died, probably of dysentery. Again, she searched for the culprit and found him in the person of the prefect Mummolus, whom she hated. He had boasted of a cer- tain herb in his possession that could cure Theuderic’s illness. As the queen could not attack this royal official directly, she first had a number of Parisian women rounded up and tort u red. They we re forced to confess “that they were witches … and responsible for many deaths … ‘We sacrificed your son, O Queen, to save the life of Mummolus.’ Fredegunde then had these poor wretches tort u red even more inhumanely, cutting off the heads of some, burning others alive, and breaking the bones of the rest on the wheel.” This was their punishment for having used maleficiis et incantationibus, magic (or poison) and incantations, to murder Theuderic. Upon Fredegunde’s instigation, Chilperic I also had the prefect questioned similarly; but he denied all sorceries, admitting, however, to having used unguents and potions in order to bring him into the good favor of the king and his wife. Even after his torments, he boasted not to have felt the pain. Chilperic therefore concluded “it must be true, then, that he is a sorcerer, if the punishment which we are giving him does not hurt him.” So he racked him again, and he did not survive this for long (Gregory of Tours 1974, VI: 35).
For a number of reasons, these incidents are informative for the history of witchcraft during the Early Middle Ages: Through them we learn that the application of magic, both to arouse love and to destroy life, must have been quite common in sixth-century Gaul. Though a man might be the instigator, women we re suspected first and foremost of bewitching. Torture created (or, at least, convicted) witches. Burning was a common punishment for crimes of magic, in accordance with the Lex Salica (Salic Law) 19, 1. In many respects, this situation was comparable to the later Middle Ages and the early modern era. However, no special ecclesiastical or civil institutions existed for witch hunting, and there is no hint of any suspicion of involvement by demonic forces. Therefore, cases of persecution for sorcery remained relatively scarce before the fourteenth century.
References and further reading:
Ewig, Eugen. 1976. Spätantikes und fränkisches Gallien: Gesammelte Schrifter (1952–1973). 2 vols. Munich: Artemis I: 142–148.
Gregory of Tours. 1974. History of the Franks. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Thierry, Augustin. 1898. Récits des temps mérovingiens. 2nd ed. Paris: Garnier.
Wood, Ian. 1994. The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450–751. London: Longman.
— Golden’s Encyclopedia of Witchcraft
Peter Treveris, Trepanation, 1525